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Located on the eastern tip of Indonesia, Papua has exotic view, ranging from mountains, beaches, lakes, and bays. Moreover, the diversity of cultures and customs owned and archaelogical sites, reveals as unburried mystery to trace.
A piece of those heaven view is able to be seen the park which is located in Wondama Bay district. The park stretches from the eastern Kwatisore Peninsula to the north of Rumberpon Island with a coastline length of 500 km. It is the largest marine national park in Indonesia, with total area of approximately 1,453,000 ha, consisting of land and coastal area (0.9%), main islands (3.8%), coral reefs (5.5%), and ocean (89.8%). It certainly a habitat of variety of flora and fauna.
Visitors may go through Manokwari or Nabire to get there. From that location, the trip was about 95 km which can be reached by motor boat.
There are about 209 species of fish such as: butterflyfish, angelfish, damselfish, parrotfish, rabbitfish, and anemone fish. Declared as a national park in 1993, it is known for its richness in fish species. In addition, this park is a place for nurturing four species of sea turtles: green turtle, hawksbilll, leather back turtles, and flatback turtle. Other mammals such as mermaids, coconut crabs, blue whales, dolphins, and sharks are often seen on the surface. Not to mention, the whale shark (Rhincodon typus) is often seen also in the Kwatisore area, Nabire.
Whale shark which is called 'gurano' by locals, is a rare animal which can be seen only in Papua, Philipines, Australia, and South Africa. The sharks migrate to find feeding and nesting area. This shark often seen in Kwatisore, Nabire, while the one in Australia be seen only in summer.
When taking domestic flights in Indonesia, most airline require you to arrive at least one hour before departure time. Always allow extra time for traffic delays en route. For international departures, you should aim to be at the airport 2 to 3 hours prior to departure, but check for any additional time requirements on your ticket.
By air: Jakarta, Surabaya, Denpasar, Ujung Pandang (Makasar), Jayapura, and Darwin — Biak: with Garuda Indonesia Airways. Transit in Biak, changing flight to Nabire: Susi Air.
Jakarta — Manokwari: Lion Air. Transit in Manokwari, changing flight to Nabire: Express or Susi Air.
Check the airline's website for this.
By sea: Jakarta, Surabaya, Ujung Pandang (Makasar), and Jayapura by using boats to Manokwari or Nabire. From Manokwari to the location of national park (Rumberpon Island) using longboat for five and a half hours. Or from Manokwari to Ransiki district by car for three hours, then continued by motorboat for two and a half hours.
Flight delays and cancelation are relatively commonplace, but services are improving, particularly in major airport such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Bali, and Makasar.
Most domestic airlines allow a baggage allowance of 20kg, plus your carry-on bag. However, some airlines that operate smaller planes only allow 10kg to 15kg, so consider your packing carefully. Overweight baggage fees are not expensive and range from IDR 20,000 to IDR 50,000 per kilo.
When booking domestic flights via the internet, some Indonesian airline do not accept non-Indonesian credit cards. If you have problem, try using different internet browser. If you continue to have problems, it may be that your foreign card is not recognized. If you are booking a sequence of flights, try to use the same airline for all flight. Whilst this is not always possible, it means that if you miss a flight due to an earlier flight being delayed or cancelled, the airline will assist you to reach your final destination.
Cendrawasih National Park occupy over 14,535 kilometre square. Fourty six species of plant have been recorded dominated by bruguiera and avicennia species.
The coral reef ecosystem forms part of the coral triangle region. In this park, 150 coral species have been recorded, consisting of fifteen families and distributed on the shores of eighteen islands. Among these are colonies of blue coral, black coral, leptoseries species, and soft corals. The percentage of live coral coverage varies from between 30‐40%to 65%.
Many marine mammals are poisonous and venomous to protect themselves from unwanted attention of their predators, or to catch their own prey more efficiently. Poisons are substances which cause pain, sickness, or even death if eaten. Venoms have these effects if injected.
As an example, pufferfishes are poisonous, because their skin and internal organs contain an extremely powerful toxin, tetrodotoxin. This is the stuff that African and Carribean witch doctors are said to use to turn people into zombies. Ironically, Pufferfish flesh is safe to eat, and is considered to be a delicacy in Japan, where it is known as fugu. It can only be prepared for sale there by trained and licensed chefs, but accidents do happen, and deaths from fugu posoning are not unknown.
Sea snakes are not poisonous. They are venomous, because they inject their toxins, using their fangs. Some sea anakes are extremely venomous, their venom being ten times more potent than a cobra's. Why are sea snakes so venomous? After all, they do not need to kill several elephants with a single bite! One reason is that some sea snakes prey on moray eels, which are particularly tough customers and have over millions of years evolved great resistance to snake venom. Extremely potent venom is needed to kill these morays. Another reason for using such powerful venom is that it kills prey animals so quickly they have little chance to struggle and hurt the snake. Fortunately for divers and snorkellers, people are not on the snake's menu. Sea snake may sometimes be very inquisitives, but they are rarely if ever aggresive with swimers, and in any case tend to have very small mouths and short teeth, which prevent them from biting large objects.
Other more commonly encountered venomous reef inhabitants include the catfish, and the scorpionfishes and their relatives (stonefishes and lionfishes). These fishes all have venomous spines on their backs which they use for defence. While the stonefish is the most feared of all venomous fishes, most stings to divers are caused by lionfishes and are inflicted on underwater photographers. Lionfishes turn their venomous spines towards danger. When confronted with overenthusiastic underwater photographer they naturally turn their back to the camera. This doesn't make a good photo, so the photographer will often wave their hand to one side of the lionfish. The fish will appear to oblige by turning its face to the camera. In fact it is turning its spines towards the threatening hand. The photographer, concentrating on framing the perfect shot, is too often unaware of the lionfish really up to!
Luckily, first aid for lionfish, and other fish, stings is simple. Most fish venoms are proteins, and as such they are denaturated by heat. An effective treatment for most fish stings is therefore immersion of the affected part in hot water. This should not be boiling, or it will cause severe burns. About 45 degrees celcius is okay. Keep immersed in hot water until the pain subsides.
In contrast to most fishes which use their spines for defence, cone shells have a venomous barb which they use offensively to attack and immobilize their prey. Cones that feed on fish have particularly powerful venom, which can be deadly to humans. There are many species of cones, and it is difficult for non‐specialist to tell them apart. For this reason it is best to leave all cone shells untouched.
Having a potent poison or venom as a defence mechanism is all very well, but if a predator does not know you are well defended he may bite you anyway. Some animals therefore advertise their nasty natures with warning (or aposematic) colours. Such warning colors tend to be bright, and contrasting bands are often present. For example, many sea snakes are banded, while poisonous flatworms and sea slugs are brightly coloured and often striped.
Animals with warning colouration may still fall victim to inexperienced predator that has not learnt to heed their warning. If two species have the same warning pattern, a predator has only to try one and it will learn to avoid them both. For this reason, many dangerous animals have similar warning signs.
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